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District Heating and Cooling

Annex X Project 04

The Research / IEA DHC Annexes / 2011-2014 / Annex X / Annex X Project 04

Development of an Universal Calculation Model and Calculation Tool for Primary Energy Factors and CO2 Equivalents in District Heating and Cooling including CHP

Main screen of UCM tool


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Lead country: Norway

The objective of this project has been to develop a universal, well documented and transparent method and calculation tool to determine the renewable and non-renewable Primary Energy Factors (PEF) and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions factors for district heating and cooling (DHC) including combined heat and power (CHP).
The tool has been tested by calculating the primary energy factors and greenhouse gas emissions as CO2 equivalents for selected case studies. The case studies include both low temperature district heating and areas with low heating/cooling demand.
The method has been implemented in a Mathlab-based calculation tool which is currently in a test phase for International Energy Agency (IEA) DHC members.
The overall aim is to illustrate the environmental benefits of DHC in terms of PEF and GHG reductions in a transparent and understandable way. The tool can provide a useful means for a quick and precise assessment of PEF and GHG indicators for specific DHC systems.

Project contact

Dr. Jacob Stang

SINTEF Energy Research
Kolbjørn Hejesv. 1b
7465 Trondheim,

Jacob.H.Stang (at) sintef.no